Scotland's abbeys were not immune from attack by the English, especially along the Scottish border.
All the border abbeys – Melrose, Kelso (which underwent a regular siege), Jedburgh and Dryburgh – were at one time or another destroyed by English armies. In fact, their present appearance has much to do with their regular ‘visitor’, Edward Seymour, Earl of Hertford better known as ‘Protecter Somerset’. He acted on the orders of Henry VIII but in spite of his efforts to subdue Scotland he was expelled by their French allies in 1550.
His nemesis came in 1552 when his nephew, Edward VI, decided that his head would look much better detached from his body.
Dryburgh was first destroyed in 1322 when Edward II’s soldiers, retreating from Scotland, vindictively set it on fire when its bells rang in celebration. Edward was later murdered in Berkeley Castle.
It took 60 years to restore just in time for Richard II in 1385, after another unsuccessful invasion of Scotland, to camp his army in its grounds. They left the following day leaving Dryburgh ‘devastated by hostile fire’.
The damage was extensive, probably disastrous. Richard later appeared to have felt some remorse but his nemesis came when Henry IV (no remorse) had him starved to death in Pontefract Castle.
In 1523 the Earl of Surrey plundered the Scottish borders – Kelso and Jedburgh Abbeys were torched followed by Dryburgh.
In September 1544 Edward Seymour (see above) attacked Dryburgh with ‘great damage done’.
This misfortune was followed by an even greater one for on Friday 4th November 1544 Sir George Bowes arrived from England with 700 horsemen – the surprise was complete. His troops set about pillage and destruction. An account sent to Mary of Guise related that the English had:
The town of Dryburgh and its abbey were never rebuilt.
After such a history it is surprising that anything of Dryburgh remains. Signs of its destruction are everywhere and nowhere more noticeable than the walls of the north transept which are pock marked by musket balls – it certainly deserves its place alongside our Scottish castles.
Article by Scottish Castles Association member Brian McGarrigle.